This study aimed to demonstrate that curcumin (Cur)-containing graphene composites have high anticancer activity. Specifically, graphene-derivatives were used as nanovectors for the delivery of the hydrophobic anticancer drug Cur based on pH dependence. Different Cur-graphene composites were prepared based on polar interactions between Cur and the number of oxygen-containing functional groups of respective starting materials. The degree of drug-loading was found to be increased by increasing the number of oxygen-containing functional groups in graphene-derivatives. We demonstrated a synergistic effect of Cur-graphene composites on cancer cell death (HCT 116) both in vitro and in vivo. As-prepared graphene quantum dot (GQD)-Cur composites contained the highest amount of Cur nano-particles and exhibited the best anticancer activity compared to the other composites including Cur alone at the same dose. This is the first example of synergistic chemotherapy using GQD-Cur composites simultaneous with superficial bioprobes for tumor imaging.